Tag Archives: Taxes

Calculating employee benefit costs in Indonesia

Indonesian Financial Accounting Standard (PSAK) 24 requires companies to report their employee benefit costs, including all associated taxes, on a gross basis. Calculating tax obligations in accordance with PSAK 24 can be complicated for companies that operate a net payroll system. In her article “Gross up for net benefits systems,” Milliman’s Gita Tanatika highlights methods employers can use to determine total gross benefits.

Top Milliman blog posts in 2014

Milliman consultants had another prolific publishing year in 2014, with blog topics ranging from healthcare reform to HATFA. As 2014 comes to a close, we’ve highlighted Milliman’s top 20 blogs for 2014 based on total page views.

20. Mike Williams and Stephanie Noonan’s blog, “Four things employers should know when evaluating private health exchanges,” can help employers determine whether a PHE makes sense for them.

19. Kevin Skow discusses savings tools that can help employees prepare for retirement in his blog “Retirement readiness: How long will you live in retirement? Want to bet on it?

18. The Benefits Alert entitled “Revised mortality assumptions issued for pension plans,” published by Milliman’s Employee Benefit Research Group, provides pension plan sponsors actuarial perspective on the Society of Actuaries’ revised mortality tables.

17. In her blog, “PBGC variable rate premium: Should plans make the switch?,” Milliman’s Maria Moliterno provides examples of how consultants can estimate variable rate premiums using either the standard premium funding target or the alternative premium funding target for 2014 and 2015 plan years.

16. Milliman’s infographic “The boomerang generation’s retirement planning” features 12 tips Millennials should consider when developing their retirement strategy.

15. “Young uninsureds ask, ‘Do I feel lucky?’” examines the dilemma young consumers face when deciding to purchase insurance on the health exchange or go uninsured.

14. Last year’s #1 blog, “Retiring early under ACA: An unexpected outcome for employers?,” is still going strong. The blog authored by Jeff Bradley discusses the impact that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could have on early retirees.

13. Genny Sedgwick’s “Fee leveling in DC plans: Disclosure is just the beginning” blog also made our list for the second consecutive year. Genny explains how different fee assessment methodologies, when used with a strategy to normalize revenue sharing among participant accounts, can significantly modify the impact of plan fees in participant accounts.

12. Doug Conkel discusses how the Supreme Court’s decision to rule on Tibble vs. Edison may impact defined contribution plans in his blog “Tibble vs. Edison: What will it mean for plan sponsors and fiduciaries?

11. In her blog “Retirement plan leakage and retirement readiness,” Kara Tedesco discusses some problems created by the outflow of retirement savings. She also provides perspective on how employers can help employees keep money in their plans.

Continue reading

Lump-sum payouts and tax implications

Clark-CharlieOver the past few years, there is evidence to confirm that several employers sponsoring defined benefit (DB) pension plans have been settling their plans’ pension obligation to former employees via a single lump-sum payout. It is commonly referred to as a lump-sum cleanup strategy. Some commenters have said that not only has demand for such a strategy not abated, it has accelerated.

This blog post will remain neutral on the prudence of implementing such a strategy, as each employer’s goal is unique. Recognizing that employers who implement such strategies spend enormous energy and resources to communicate the consequences and financial impact on those electing the lump-sum payout, it’s questionable whether recipients completely understand the individual tax implications it could personally have on them. (And to be clear, this blog post does not implicitly or explicitly render any type of tax advice.)

If a participant chooses to roll over the lump-sum distribution to a personal tax-deferred IRA or to a tax-qualified savings plan of a new employer, the issues below are irrelevant. However, if the lump-sum is received as current income:

• The individual could move into the next higher marginal tax bracket, both federal and state (where there is a state income tax).
• The individual could face a 10% excise tax if that person is younger than age 59½.
• The individual could incur an underwithholding penalty in comparison to their prior year’s tax liability.
• According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), eligible individuals and families with incomes between 100% and 400% of the federal poverty level (FPL) may receive premium tax credits for purchasing health insurance in the healthcare exchange. The 2013 FPL for a single person is $11,490 and this individual’s healthcare premium payment is capped at $228 per year. A lump-sum of approximately $29,000 would raise that premium cap to $3,816. A lump-sum of approximately $34,000 would raise income above 400% of the FPL and the individual would have to pay the full premium of the healthcare policy selected on the healthcare exchange.

Takeaway: The economic impact of a lump-sum payout must be carefully evaluated by the recipient. It may not be as advantageous as it appears. Plan sponsors implementing this strategy may wish to consider the impacts of the ACA as they draft the communications to the prospective payees.

Judging tax implications of Roth 401(k) contributions

Guanella-Jay-EContributing to a retirement plan is widely considered a no-brainer if the goal is to attain a meaningful retirement. But the decision on how to invest contributions within the plan can be daunting. Determining what type of contributions to make further complicates things. While tax-deferred contributions reduce taxable income in the year in which they are made, the taxes owed on those contributions as well as the investment earnings are deferred until a later time, possibly at retirement. Roth contributions don’t reduce current taxable income, but the tradeoff is no tax liability on the investment earnings when a distribution is taken (provided the individual is at least age 59½ and has held the account for at least five years).

The decision to contribute to a Roth 401(k) instead of deferring at a tax-deferred level is often based on an anticipation of changes to future tax rates. While this is a personal decision based on future income, several other factors should also be considered. The truth behind the decision is similar to other choices in life, more complicated than we’d like it. For example, the reduction in tax-deferred income can affect tax liability, possibly increasing refunds. If tax-deferred contributions increase a tax refund, how can the “newly found” money be taken advantage of? Depending on a person’s filing status, different advantages or disadvantages may exist.

None of us are fortune-tellers. It’s difficult to predict future income or tax brackets over a period of several years. It becomes even more complex when trying to anticipate things that are out of anyone’s control, such as politicians altering tax rates to address policy changes and deficits. Recent history underscores this fact with significant changes occurring at the top rate, ranging from 50% in 1982 to 38.5% in 1987, 28% in 1988, 31% in 1991, 39.6% in 1993, 35% in 2003, and settling at back at 39.6% starting in 2013 (with rates exceeding 90% at certain points in the last century). Accordingly, depending on when money is taken out of a retirement plan, the tax results can dramatically change over a period of years.

A diversified investment strategy has long been considered a way to optimize investment returns over time while reducing risk. A diversified tax strategy may be equally important. By utilizing tax-deferred and Roth savings options, tax liabilities may be mitigated, ultimately creating more flexibility to reduce individual tax burdens.

Managing FICA taxes in the years ahead

Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) taxes on wages include Social Security’s Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) and Medicare’s Hospital Insurance (HI). Tax rates as a percentage of taxable earnings are set by law and are currently 6.2% for OASDI and 1.45% for HI, payable each by employees and employers. (The 6.2% OASDI employee rate is temporarily reduced to 4.2% for 2011 and 2012.)

As a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), the employee HI tax will increase by 0.9% beginning January 1, 2013, from 1.45% to 2.35%. This will apply to FICA wages over $200,000 for individuals and $250,000 for married couples filing jointly. The employer tax rate will not change.

Accruals in nonqualified deferred compensation plans are also subject to FICA taxes, although the OASDI tax typically does not apply to these accruals because the non-deferred compensation of highly paid executives in nonqualified plans has usually exceeded the Social Security taxable wage limit ($113,700 in 2013). The HI tax has no maximum wage limit. Before the HI tax rate increase takes effect, executives may have a window of opportunity to save money with respect to taxes on their nonqualified benefits by paying some of the tax at the lower 2012 rates.

In a defined benefit (DB) nonqualified retirement plan (non-account balance plan), participants may voluntarily elect to pay the tax on their vested benefit before they retire. This is called “early inclusion” in the IRC Section 3121(v) regulations. The present value of the nonqualified benefit can be calculated at a date in 2012, and then taxes can be paid on that present value at the 2012 tax rate. When the participant retires in a later year, a “true up” calculation will be done to determine the final present value of the participant’s nonqualified benefit, and the excess of the final value over the originally calculated value is taxed at the rates in effect at the time of retirement.

It is important to note that the employee does face some risk in prepaying FICA taxes on nonqualified benefits. If the benefits decrease between now and retirement (because of growing offsets in the benefit formula, for example), the employee may overpay taxes. A larger risk for the employee is in the possibility that the company enters bankruptcy before he or she retires and the employee loses the nonqualified benefits that he or she has already paid taxes on.

For executives with sizeable nonqualified pension benefits, it may be worthwhile to consider taking advantage of the lower tax rates now by paying FICA taxes in 2012 rather than waiting until retirement. When making this decision, employees should consult their tax advisors, bear in mind how their nonqualified benefits may change between now and retirement, and take their companies’ financial stability into consideration. Plan sponsors should also consult with legal counsel before informing participants of the opportunity to pay FICA taxes early.

Would tax increases prompt small business owners to reevaluate their retirement programs?

There has been much discussion in the news lately regarding the tax code. Whether the discussion centers around different tax plans proposed by the presidential candidates, the Bush tax cuts set to expire at the end of the year, the fiscal cliff, or Congressional gridlock, it appears small business owners will be adversely affected in some form.

If tax rates increase and small business owners look at different alternatives to manage their tax liabilities, will we see changes to their retirement programs? In particular, will there be interest in adding tax-advantaged cash balance plans to their existing 401(k) profit sharing plans, or perhaps adding newly minted DB(k) plans for those without retirement programs?

For those with 401(k) profit sharing plans, a separate cash balance plan can be established and coupled with the existing plan in order to help small business owners substantially increase contributions to their retirement programs. This allows these small business owners to maximize their tax-deductible contributions and manage their tax liabilities. This type of retirement program is especially feasible for groups of professionals, such as organizations staffed mostly by accountants, lawyers, or doctors.

For those without current retirement programs, the DB(k) may be the way to go. The DB(k) was introduced as part of the Pension Protection Act of 2006. A DB(k) is designed to incorporate the best parts of both a defined benefit (DB) plan and a 401(k) plan into one single plan. These plans provide for a guaranteed income stream at retirement, while allowing for employees to contribute to a 401(k) savings account. Although these plans could be effective January 1, 2010, Congress has not provided any guidance on how they should be operated, leaving employers reluctant to set them up.

It will be important for small business owners to look at all alternatives to manage their tax liabilities. Making a change to their retirement programs may be part of the solution.